Who needs calcium supplementation?
STANDARDS calcium intake
The required amount of calcium in our diet depends on many factors, but the main ones – sex, age, and some special periods of life.
|Age and Gender||EFSA Europe) (Мg/day||
WHO recommendations mg / day
|Children up to 1 year||500||500|
|Children 2-12 years||400||800|
|Pregnant and lactating||averaged||averaged||1200-1500|
|Young people 20-30 years||700||1000-1200||800|
|Women 30-45 years||1000|
|Men 30-60 years||1000|
|Women 46 and older||1500|
|Men 60 and older||1500|
Calcium – one of the most necessary and important minerals for our health. Its body is so much that it relates to the macroelements and microelements to not. In our body, an average of 1 to 1.5 kilograms of calcium. And the importance of calcium for health as great – most important processes going on with the participation of calcium. The calcium in human body basically contained in its permanent station – in the bones and teeth (99%) and 1% in ionized form and is dissolved in the blood is an important participant in many biochemical processes – in blood coagulation, in the regulation of heart rate in the construction cell membranes, the insular system, immune system, gastrointestinal peristalsis and other equally important. Therefore, the body has mechanisms to maintain a constant level of 2.15 around 2.5 mmol / L. To maintain this level the body extracts calcium from the depot at the essentials. It is therefore necessary in a daily calcium dose must always be ingested with food. In nature, the most common form of calcium such as calcium carbonate. But the skeleton of animals and humans calcium is in a more complex form – calcium hydroxyapatite. This fact must be taken into account when selecting an additional source of intake of calcium. Calcium in the form calcium hydroxyapatite composed of calcium and phosphorus in the strictly required ratio of 2: 1, which allows calcium speed necessary transformation and enter the bone. It increases bioavailability of calcium his so-called chelation – Accession of the protein molecule as a conductor. Chelated calcium it provides targeted delivery of the bone and prevents the risk of calcification. Calcium is found in natural products – cheese, cottage cheese, meat products, and it would seem, with proper nutrition, we would have missed it. But calcium – a very mineral moody – our body can absorb only if it complied with the set imperative. And here are some of them:
- Low stomach acidity,
- Insufficient ability of biliary,
- Health and normally functioning kidneys,
- Sufficiently year-round sun exposure.
In our lives, these conditions often are difficult. In case of any failure in the body stores of calcium consumed from the depot, bone strength is weakened, broken teeth. In some important periods of our life – adolescence, pregnancy during lactation, in old age – particularly exacting body to sufficient content of calcium in the body. At this time it is necessary to replenish daily calcium not only the food, but also additional mineral complexes.
It is not enough to eat calcium-rich food – always have to take into account how well the body can absorb the calcium. For the absorption of calcium in the stomach has to go into an ionic form, which only occurs when sufficient development of hydrochloric acid and other conditions mentioned above. The paradox is that even with pronounced lack of calcium in the body, doctors can see in the blood is normal or even increased calcium content – it is washed out of the bone. It confuses the doctors, and they are advised to restrict calcium intake than exacerbate the situation.
Besides the function of maintaining bone mass, calcium is involved in the regulation of blood pressure, vascular tone, helps with SARS and influenza, promotes good sleep, reduces allergic reactions, strengthens the immune system is involved in detoxification, detoxification, tying in the intestine metabolites of bile acids (essential For example, in the removal of the gallbladder), preventing the development of colon cancer. From the point of view of bioavailability is important form of calcium (preferably citrate, and calcium hydroxyapatite), their complex combination with vitamins and trace elements. It is important to overall health and individual characteristics – gender, age, height, race, heredity. The combination of Calcium with vitamin D3, vitamin C, trace elements involved in the metabolism of calcium (magnesium, silicon, chromium, manganese, boron) increase its bioavailability. Tea, coffee, certain medications, stress, interfere with calcium absorption. Increases calcium loss due to sedentary lifestyles, lack of vitamins in the diet, excess carbonated beverages.
|Age (adolescence, women over 40 years old, pregnant and lactating)||Demand rises|
|Asthenic constitution, especially in women||Demand rises|
|Drinking alcohol in excess of 50 g / day||Demand rises|
|Low physical activity||Demand rises|
|Hormonal drugs (corticosteroids)||Demand rises|
|Influence of heredity information about fractures in the family||Demand rises|
Indirect signs of a lack of calcium:
- The feeling of fatigue, lethargy
- Aching in the back, legs
- Chest pain on the type of heart
- Night cramps
- Periodontal disease
The interaction of calcium with other micronutrients
Calcium is in close connection with other minerals – it is their common field of activity and it must be well understood, so as not to disturb the equilibrium in the preparation of health complexes. The most important are with calcium phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, boron, silicon, manganese and chromium.
Phosphorus together with calcium – the basis of bone mineralization, without the absorption of calcium and the structure can not be hydroxyapatite contains both minerals in the proper ratio of 2: 1. Phosphorus is needed every cell of our body, it is involved in muscle contraction, enzymatic processes, power generation cells, and many other vital processes.
Magnesium – is also essential mineral, it involved almost 350 biochemical processes. Its presence in sufficient quantity absolutely essential for calcium absorption and conservation of the mineral balance of the whole body. This anti-stress mineral, and even natural tranquilizer – it relieves anxiety and irritability, relaxes muscles, normalizes blood pressure.
Manganese – is involved in the transfer of oxygen from the blood into the cells, in the synthesis of the major components of bone and cartilage, their nutrition. Manganese deficiency leads to degenerative changes in bone protein matrix.
Zinc – a key participant in enzymatic reactions, synthesis of hormones and vitamins. Expended by the body in the metabolic cycle of the synthesis of cartilage and bone tissue.
Silicon – is involved in protein synthesis (collagen, elastin), glycosaminoglycans, which determines the state of the bone, cartilage, hair, nails.
Boron – is required to maintain hormone levels in adulthood women, which contributes to maintaining bone strength. It prevents the excretion of calcium and manganese, allows the body to efficiently use vitamin D, which is also important for the synthesis of bone tissue.
Chromium – participant of enzymatic processes, promotes the absorption of glucose, regulate the sensitivity of insulin receptors that are closely related to the prevention of osteoporosis.